Peroxides (Total 50129 Papers Found)

Cardiolipin (CL) is the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, where it is synthesized locally and plays a critical role in mitochondrial bioenergetic functions. The importance of CL in human health is underscored by the observation that perturbation of CL biosynthesis causes the severe genetic disorder Barth syndrome. To fully understand the cellular response to the loss of CL, we carried out genome-wide expression profiling of the yeast CL mutant crd1Δ. Our results show that the l ...
1. Endothelial cells are permanently challenged by altering pH in the blood, and oxidative damage could also influence the intracellular pH (pHi) of the endothelium. Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells form the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and pHi regulation of brain capillary endothelial cells is important for the maintenance of BBB integrity. The aim of this study was to address the pH regulatory mechanisms and the effect of an acute exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the pH regulatio ...
The present study was undertaken to test the influence of exogenously applied phytohormones: auxins (IAA, IBA, NAA, PAA), cytokinins (BA, CPPU, DPU, 2iP, Kin, TDZ, Z), gibberellin (GA(3)), jasmonic acid (JA) as well as polyamine - spermidine (Spd) upon the growth and metabolism of green microalga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae) exposed to heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb) stress. The inhibitory effect of heavy metals on algal growth, metabolite accumulation and enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antio ...
OBJECTIVES To estimate the extent of genomic DNA damage and killing of lymphocytes by reactive oxygen intermediates in autoimmune diseases. METHODS 8-Oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a promutagenic DNA lesion induced by reactive oxygen intermediates, was measured by high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, in hydrolysates of DNA which had been extracted from lymphocyte and polymorphonuclear leucocyte fractions of human blood. In addition, human primar ...
BACKGROUND Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co(3)O(4)NPs) are increasingly recognized for their utility in biological applications, magnetic resonance imaging, and drug delivery. However, little is known about the toxicity of Co(3)O(4)NPs in human cells. METHODS We investigated the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by Co(3)O(4)NPs in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, apoptosis, and DNA d ...
Chemical investigation of the gorgonian octocoral Junceella fragilis, collected in Taiwan, resulted in the isolation of seven new briarane-type diterpenes, frajunolides E-K (1-7), in addition to 14 known briaranes, praelolide, junceellin, junceellolides A-E, and K, 11a,20a-epoxy-4-deacetoxyjunceelolide D, umbraculolide A, junceellonoid A, and juncins Y, Z, and ZI, as well as ergosterol peroxide. The structures of 1-7 were determined by analysis of HRESIMS and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Cytotoxic ...
In the presence of Escherichia coli, myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chloride ion resulted in formation of long-lived chloramine and/or chloramide derivatives of bacterial components. The same amount of these nitrogen-chlorine (N-Cl) derivatives was obtained with either hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or the myeloperoxidase system, indicating that myeloperoxidase catalyzed the oxidation of chloride to HOCl. Identical killing was obtained with HOCl or the myeloperoxidase system. About 30 to 50% o ...
The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant, cytoprotective and antibacterial effects of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea buckthorn) (SBT) leaves by using various in vitro systems and analysis of marker compounds by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The chemical composition of the leaf extracts was quantified by colorimetric reaction in terms of total phenol and flavonoids contents. Further, some of its bioacti ...
OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to evaluate the in vitro tooth whitening effects of a novel 6% hydrogen peroxide containing tooth whitener Xtra White (XW) on extrinsic stain and intrinsic tooth colour and the effects on enamel and dentine microhardness. In addition, to determine the levels of peroxide found in tooth pulp chambers after treatment with XW in vitro. METHODS Extrinsic stain changes were determined by measuring colour changes of tea stained hydroxyapatite discs after treatme ...
A canine model with cyclic flow variations (CFVs) in stenosed and endothelium-injured coronary arteries was used to examine the role of active oxygen species in platelet aggregation in vivo. We studied 90 anesthetized dogs in which the pericardial cavity was opened and the heart was exposed. The velocity of blood flow in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was monitored by a pulsed Doppler flow probe. In 67 dogs, the LADs were stenosed by applying external constrictors at the site ...
DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (Dps proteins) protect bacteria primarily from oxidative damage. They are composed of 12 identical subunits assembled with 23-symmetry to form a compact cage-like structure known to be stable at temperatures > 70 degrees C and over a wide pH range. Thermosynechococcus elongatus Dps thermostability is increased dramatically relative to mesophilic Dps proteins. Hydrophobic interactions at the dimeric and trimeric interfaces called Dps-like are replaced by ...
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes huge annual losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Multiresistance against antibiotics of APEC strains is increasingly seen in broilers, although much is still unknown about strains from laying hens where use of antibiotics is limited. Disinfection can reduce the infection burden. However, little is known about the presence of resistance against these products. Ninety-seven APEC strains were isolated from Belgian laying hens. The resistance to d ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reactive derivatives of O2 metabolism, including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide. All types of vascular cells produce ROS, primarily via cell membrane-associated NAD(P)H oxidase. Cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, are associated with increased ROS formation (oxidative stress). Oxidative excess in the vasculature reduces levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide, causes tissue injury, promotes protein oxidation and ...
The Candida albicans CDR1 and CDR2 genes code for highly homologous ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which are overexpressed in azole-resistant clinical isolates and which confer resistance to multiple drugs by actively transporting their substrates out of the cells. These transporters are formed by two homologous halves, each with an intracellular domain containing an ATP-binding site followed by a membrane-associated domain. We have expressed Cdr1p and Cdr2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
Iron is an essential element for cells but may also be an important cytotoxin. However, very little is known about iron transport, redox status, or toxicity specifically inside cells. In this study, we exploited the sensitivity of fura-2 to quenching by ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) to detect intracellular free iron ([Fe(2+)](i)) in neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in primary culture. All cell types exposed to Fe(2+) in the presence of the ionophore pyrithione rapidly accumulated Fe(2+) to a si ...
BACKGROUND Hair dyes are being commonly used to change the color of hair for cosmetic reason. However, concern is growing over the dermatitis and subsequent hair loss associated with the repeated use of hair dye products, yet the causative ingredients have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE Here we investigated hair dye-induced dermatitis and hair loss using in vivo mouse model to uncover the causative ingredients. METHODS Commercially available hair dye products or combination of the ingredient ...
The purpose of the present study was to discover the relative potency of onion, Allium cepa, with respect to its hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects on the diabetic situation, and the association of these effects with the potential against oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. A normal control (group A), and a non-diabetic group (group B) were treated daily with 1 ml A. cepa solution (0.4 g A. cepa/rat). Groups C and D were made diabetic by an intraperitoneal inj ...
Sickle erythrocyte (RBC) membranes were previously shown to manifest increased Fenton activity (iron-dependent, peroxide-driven formation of hydroxyl radical [.OH]) compared with normal RBC membranes, but the nature of the catalytic iron was not defined. We now find that sickle membranes exposed to superoxide (.O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have three distinct iron compartments able to act as Fenton catalysts: preexisting free iron, free iron released during oxidant stress, and a component t ...
Four isomers are currently known for the trioxygenated fullerene derivative C(60)(O)(3), three regioisomers with all of the oxygen addends as epoxy groups and the unstable ozonide isomer with a 1,2,3-trioxlane ring. Here we report the synthesis of an open-cage isomer for C(60)(O)(3) with a ketolactone moiety embedded into the fullerene skeleton through a three-step procedure mediated by fullerene peroxide chemistry. Two fullerene skeleton carbon-carbon bonds are cleaved in the process. The open- ...
Zhi Ling Tang (ZLT [symbol: see text], a TCM prescription designed for replenishing essence, supplementing marrow, invigorating qi, warming yang, removing blood stasis and phlegm, tonifying the brain, and invigorating mental activity) was used in 32 cases of senile dementia (SD). After treatment, the levels of serum cholesterol (Tch), triglyceride (TG), and plasma lipid peroxides (LPO) were lowered; the content of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in R ...
The chemical decompositions of beta-alaninediacetic acid (ADA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were studied in a pilot-plant flow-through system simulating alkaline (pH 10-11) hydrogen peroxide bleaching environments. The amount of hydrogen peroxide decomposition was evaluated, and the distribution calculation was performed. Under the conditions investigated, ADA was more degradable than DTPA (average residual 71% vs 94%). The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was not dependent on ...
Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by inflammation, excess metal storage and excess caloric intake cause generalized DNA damage, producing genotoxic and mutagenic effects. The consequent deregulation of cell homeostasis is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of malignancies and degenerative diseases. Reactive aldehydes produced by LPO, such as malondialdehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, react with DNA bases, generating promutagenic exocyclic DNA a ...
Benzidine dihydrochloride in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide reacts with myeloperoxidase contained within the granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained from the oral cavity. A blue meriquinoid oxidation product is formed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which can be extracted from the granules with a combination of methyl alcohol and dimethylsulfoxide. A stable yellow-brown pigment is formed which can be measured spectrophotometrically. The values are expressed in optical density ...
Plasma hemoglobin is routinely measured by some modification of the benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method, particularly at low concentrations. Because benzidine is carcinogenic, and thus impractical for clinical use under current restrictions, the identification of a noncarcinogenic benzidine derivative has become important. 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine fulfills this criterion, and consequently a method is described in this paper which uses it for hemoglobin determinations in the range of 1 to 10 ...
Syk has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in oxidative stress signaling in B cells. In this study, we have investigated the role of Syk in p38 activation and the regulation of cell-cycle progression upon oxidative stress. In B cells, p38 is activated by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) stimulation. Syk is required for p38 activation following stimulation with 10-100 microM H(2)O(2), but not with 1 mM H(2)O(2). H(2)O(2)-induced p38 activation is abrogated in phospholipase C-gamma2 (PLC-gamma2) ...
The presented work applies mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to the measurment of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous matrices. The performance of different ATR crystals mounted in flow cells was investigated in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions. Quantitative determination has been achieved by evaluation of specific OH stretching and deformation vibrations with linear correlation between peak areas or peak heights and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the ra ...
BACKGROUND Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether necrosectomy, alone or combined with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), has any additional beneficial effects on mitochondrial function and/or oxidative stress markers in SAP. METHODS Patients with SAP, APACHE II score > 8, and inadequate response to management in an intensive care unit were included in a prospective observational study. Sixteen underwent necrosectomy and ...
Adducts of hydrogen peroxide and transition metals have been implicated as intermediates in biological and industrial processes but have only recently been observed. Therefore, knowledge of how hydrogen peroxide interacts with transition metals is extremely limited. Herein, we report the synthesis of H2O2 complexes of cobalt, nickel, and copper supported by sulfonamido ligands with second-sphere hydrogen bonding. Binding constant and decay kinetics are reported for four new M(H2O2) adducts, prov ...
MitoQ is a ubiquinone derivative targeted to mitochondria which is known to have both antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties within mammalian cells. Previous research has suggested that the age-related increase in oxidative DNA damage in T lymphocytes might contribute to their functional decline with age. This paper describes the impact of mitoQ on unchallenged or oxidatively challenged ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy 25-30 or 55-60 year old volunteers. When cell ...
Jun is essential for fetal development, as fetuses lacking Jun die at mid-gestation with multiple cellular defects in liver and heart. Embryos expressing JunD in place of Jun (Jund/d) can develop to term with normal fetal livers, but display cardiac defects as observed in fetuses lacking Jun. Jund/d mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit early senescence, which can be rescued by EGF and HB-EGF stimulation, probably through activation of Akt signaling. Thus, JunD cannot functionally replace J ...
There is now extensive evidence that asthma results from inflammation in large and small airways, and that the degree of inflammation reflects the clinical severity of the disease. Most of this evidence, however, has come from studies in adult patients. Evidence in children comes largely from indirect studies such as measurements of peripheral blood cells and inflammatory markers, rather than from direct bronchoscopic examination. Studies in adults show that inflammation in asthma is characteriz ...
The effectiveness of organics removal of an integrated electrochemical process, namely, electrocoagulation with copper ions followed by the use of electrogenerated hydrogen peroxide was evaluated with an industrial wastewater. The copper (II) ions addition into the wastewater using electro-dissolution of copper electrodes, reduces the chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 56% after 30 min of treatment, under optimal conditions of pH 2,8 and 14.2 mA cm(-2) of current density. The integrated electrochem ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "Redox modulation of splenic cell soluble guanylate cyclase activity: activation by hydrophilic and hydrophobic oxidants represented by ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids, fatty acid hydroperoxides, and prostaglandin endoperoxides." by Nicola Goldberg et al. ...
Over the past few years, foodborne disease outbreaks linked to enteric pathogens present on cantaloupe and watermelon surfaces have raised concerns in the melon industry. This research evaluated the effectiveness of commercially available produce sanitizers against selected foodborne pathogens, both in cell suspensions and on the outer rind surface of melons. The sanitizers (65 and 200 ppm of chlorine, 5 and 35% hydrogen peroxide, 5 and 50 ppm of liquid chlorine dioxide, various hydrogen peroxid ...
A hybrid gel was prepared from acid activated clay (AA clay) and acrylic acid by gamma ray irradiation. Irradiated inorganic particles which have peroxide groups act as initiator because it generates oxide radicals by increasing temperature. Inorganic nanoparticles which are rigid part in hybrid gel also contribute to increase the mechanical property as a crosslinker. We prepared two hybrid gels to compare the effect of acid activated treatment of clay; one is synthesized with raw clay particles ...
A b st ra ct Over the last century, our understanding of selenium has progressed considerably and we have come to recognize it as an essential component or cofactor of enzymes throughout metabolism, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thioredoxine reductase and iodine deiodinase. GPx acts against hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation and is an important line of defense against free radicals; thioredoxine reductase is involved in nucleus redox status; and iodine deiodinase is involved in thy ...
Recent epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that moderate intake of alcoholic beverages protect against morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. By contrast, alcohol drinking may also predispose to cerebral hemorrhage. These observations suggest an effect of alcohol similar to that of aspirin. Several studies in humans and animals have shown that the immediate effect of alcohol, either added in vitro to platelets or 10 to 20 min after ingestion, is to dec ...
The transport and discharge of ship ballast water has been recognized as a major vector for the introduction of invasive species. Chemical oxidants, long used in drinking water and wastewater treatment, are alternative treatment methods for the control of invasive species currently being tested for use on ships. One concern when a ballasted vessel arrives in port is the adverse effects of residual oxidant in the treated water. The most common oxidants include chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), bromine (HOBr/ ...
Ribosomal Protein SA (RPSA), a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit, was identified as a H2O2 target in HeLa cells [1]. In order to analyze the intracellular localization of RPSA in different redox states we overexpressed wild-type RPSA (RPSAwt) or RPSA containing two cysteine to serine residue substitutions at positions 148 and 163 (RPSAmut) in HeLa cells. The transfected cells were exposed to H2O2 or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and RPSA subcellular localization was assessed by immunofluorescence ...
Spectral evidence is presented which shows that penicillamine is able to initiate the formation of the oxidized intermediates of myeloperoxidase in the absence of exogenous hydrogen peroxide. The autoxidation of penicillamine presumably produces superoxide which dismutates spontaneously to form hydrogen peroxide. Thus, the formation of both compounds II and III of myeloperoxidase was observed. We also report that penicillamine can directly reduce cytochrome c and therefore, it could possibly act ...
A new chemiluminescence technique has been assessed for the detection of reactive oxygen species generated by purified populations of human sperm. This revised protocol involves the use of horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) in combination with a luminol analogue, 7-dimethyl amino-naphthalin-1,2-dicarbonic acid hydrazide (DNDH), that exhibits two-three times the quantal efficiency of luminol itself. The chemiluminescent signal generated with these reagents was significantly (P less than 0.001) greater ...
(6-4) photolyase repairs pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts generated in DNA upon UV light exposure. We studied the effects of blue light on the expression of this gene in Xenopus A6 cells. Exposure of the cells to blue light, but not red light, for 12h resulted in more than 20-fold increase of the (6-4) photolyase mRNA. By contrast, levels of the other two photolyase mRNAs, i.e., those for CPD photolyase and cryptochrome DASH, did not change significantly. Oxygen radicals presumably gene ...
Co-delivery of drugs and genes has synergistic advantages in many fields such as cancer treatments. In this study, we present a multilayers for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and DNA. Ferrocene-modified polyethyleneimine (PEI-Fc) is synthesized, and it can form micelles in solution with ferrocene core and PEI shell. DOX and DNA are thus incorporated into the core and shell of the micelles, respectively, to form the PEI-Fc-DOX-DNA nanocomplexes. Such cationic nanocomplexes are used to construct ...
A cage cluster consisting of 31 uranyl and 9 Sm(3+) polyhedra self-assembles in an alkaline aqueous peroxide solution and crystallizes (U31Sm9). Trimers of Sm(3+) polyhedra are templated by μ3-η(2):η(2):η(2)-peroxide groups and link to oxo atoms of uranyl ions. Three such trimers link into a ring through uranyl hexagonal bipyramids, and these are attached through six polyhedra to a unit consisting of 21 uranyl hexagonal bipyramids to complete the cage. Luminescence spectra collected with an ...
We modelled a 'clean' surgical wound lightly contaminated with airborne bacteria, using agar, ovine muscle and ovine adipose tissue. This was used to assess the effect on bacteria of ultraviolet C light (UVC) 1200 mu W/cm2, hydrogen peroxide 3%, povidone-iodine 1% and 10%, chlorhexidine 0.05%, pulsed jet lavage with UVC and syringe and needle lavage with chlorhexidine 0.05%. All the agents were effective on agar, but mixing with blood or plasma neutralised hydrogen peroxide and povidone-iodine 1 ...
We have investigated the reaction products of several iron(III) compounds with hydrogen peroxide, and have found that hydrogen peroxide promotes the formation of an oxo-bridged iron(III) species in the presence of methanol (electron donor), and carboxyl groups of the ligand systems play a role to give the tetranuclear iron(III) compound containing a bent Fe-O-Fe unit (O: oxo oxygen atom). Based on the present results and the facts that L-chains of human ferritins lack ferroxidase activity, but a ...
Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) contain 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanyl quinone (TPQ) and a copper ion in their active sites, catalyzing amine oxidation to aldehyde and ammonia concomitant with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic studies on the CAO from bovine serum (BSAO) [Su and Klinman (1999) Biochemistry 37, 12513-12525] and the recent reports on the cobalt substituted form of the enzyme from Hansenula polymorpha (HPAO) [Mills and Klinman (2000) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9 ...
Dopamine plays a critical role in regulation of different renal functions, including glomerular filtration, renin secretion, and sodium excretion. Recent studies have shown that some of the dopamine effects in the proximal tubule may involve hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation by the catecholamine-degrading enzyme monoamine oxidases (MAO). The present study is an investigation of the potential role of H(2)O(2) generated by MAO during dopamine degradation in apoptosis of proximal tubule cells ...